Author
Sandip Chattopadhyay et al.
Date
November 16, 2012
Publication
Environmental Science and Technology (ES&T) Journal
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s effort in remediation of Great Lakes and other contaminated sites conducted in-depth testing and analysis of innovative technologies.

Environmental applications involving waste management and contaminated site remediation have evolved since the 1980s. These include treating water, such as oily waste from discharge waters of oil drilling platforms, leachate or groundwater containing organic contaminants; treating organic vapors; stabilizing organic waste, sludge, or soil to pass EPA hazardous waste leaching criteria; incorporation as sorptive components into vertical or horizontal barrier systems for hazardous waste landfills; and in-situ thin layer capping.

More recent applications include the use of amendments to lower contaminant bioavailability  and as components in active sediment caps designed to sorb organic contaminants hence reducing advective transport to the water column.